Top Ontario Personal Injury Lawyers – Personal Injury Lawyers Help Get Appropriate Compensation

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Injuries are a part of one’s life nonetheless the moment you find a personal injury lawyer, you no longer will find yourself in a difficult position when a trauma happens. By employing the most professional injury lawyer, you can rest easy bearing in mind that the outcome of your case shall be to your benefit. An Expert injury attorney may confirm that they look for enough reparation for his/her clients. Regardless of the particular injury you find yourself involved in; you need to make sure that you engage the most professional injury attorney in the market to validate your alternatives. They learn about your problem and assist in speaking for you in the courtroom in order that you obtain the damages you rightfully ought to have.

The experienced lawyers offer their experience in several domains – be it in working on slip and fall injuries, pedestrian injuries, automobile accident cases, and medical mistake. They help with all the things of the claim. They can do all the things from handling the insurance firm to filing the litigation documents. The injury attorney will accordingly liberate you from the duty of dealing with all the things because he/she is equipped to work on this. The accident attorney may look into all the things and specifics of a litigation and after which proceed to make certain that all the potential loopholes are secured. Settlements would accordingly be reached fast after all indispensable points are resolved.

The legal terms are tough and in the courtroom your injury lawyer shall file your legal proceeding along with all the details. Court cases are not settled easily, they will take longer to be listened and for an individual to get a settlement. The lawyers analyze your case very cautiously and choose all the proofs to obtain the payment you are worthy of. It is essential that you must be remunerated sufficiently to assist your treatment procedure.

They are well-versed in understanding the legal terminology and can deliver the right knowledge. Accidents are a part of our life and a freakish occurrence might bring an individual’s life on standstill. Finding a suitable help in the right time could save you a lot of effort and time. Being familiar with the effects of the trauma will be rather complex, in some cases the implications are displayed in latter parts of our life. These vehicle accident attorneys though secure your dues and analyze the clinical details to calculate the total number of days, months or years it would take to heal from the accident.

Be certain that you employ a lawyer who’s known to bring good results. The attorney should be skilled and must have a group who enjoy his or her work reliability and honesty. For you being a client the most desirable aspect is that the lawyers get the job done on a no win, no charge plan; meaning you pay only if you receive the compensation. The cases are settled sooner contingent on the know-how necessary and the degree of harm caused to the injured person. Take note, I’m not a lawyer, this is not a legal advice, it is my personal judgement, nonetheless for correct legal guidance, consider visiting gluckstein online portal now.

Source by Logan Levinson

North Carolina's Habitual Felon – Or Three Strikes Law – Explained

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In the 1990s, like most states, North Carolina enacted habitual offender statutes (or three strikes or repeat offender statutes). North Carolina has a couple different such statutes. The most important one is the habitual felon statute. The statutes mostly are failures as crime prevention tools. If you have a question about how this law works, contact a criminal lawyer North Carolina.

But they are very harsh. So if you’ve got two felonies, be careful about getting your third. Three felonies – assuming they were committed consecutively after each conviction – qualifies a defendant for habitual felon status.

Here’s how it works. The state can count felonies from other states, or federal felonies (except alcohol-related felonies). The state can only count one felony committed while under the age of 18.

The state can only count felonies for habitual purposes if the each crime happened after the person was convicted of the previous felony. So, for instance, if you committed a felony on January 10, 2010, were arrested on January 20, 2010, were released from custody on January 30, 2010, and committed a second felony on February 15, 2010, and were convicted of the first felony on March 1, 2010, you would only have one felony for habitual purposes, because the second felony was committed before you were convicted of the first felony.

Habitual felon status bumps the punishment from whatever Class it was, to a Class C. The points used for habitual felon status can’t be used to calculate prior record level as well.

What this does is make very low level drug offenses by habitual felons very very harsh penalties indeed. If you’ve been convicted of a series of Class H or Class I drug possession charges, prepare to face a habitual felon charge. The DA will try to use the habitual felon charge to get you to plea to the Class I drug possession charge without having to go to trial. It’s a horrible law, but you should be aware of getting multiple minor drug felony charges.

Source by Damon Chetson

Meet Kanisshka Tyagi, founder Legume Amicuss

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Look at Kanisshka Tyagi and you see a soft spoken always smiling dazzling docile lady. You surely don’t see a lawyer. Well, what her soft demure conceals her report card shouts. She is one of the three gorgeous ladies behind Legume Amicuss.

It was a sunny day  when Kanisshka Tyagi was strolling around the by-lanes of Connaught Place when a pamphlet caught her fancy. It said, ‘Follow your dreams’.  She had it all. She had cleared her law exams with extraordinary grades and was working with one of the best law firms. Yet, there was a sense of disconnect.

Kanisshkahad always dreamt of creating something of her own. Now, after working for someone else for nine years, she knew she was prepared to swim in the uncharted territories. It was time for her to give birth to her start-up.

Reliving her past memories, Kanisshka recalls, “On the last day of Law College, I realized my true calling was setting up my own start-up. However, law is not something where immediately post college you can jump into being a founder. You need to invest time in training yourself. Law still remains very traditional; you have to be armed with a lot of experience before pitching to big players.”

Keeping this in mind, she dedicated nine years to a dual role i.e. generating leads and executing them. Generating leads for her previous organization, she gained exposure.  Meeting new people, attending conferences and addressing law colleges helped her in erecting her own network.  

The birth of Legume Amicuss- Your legal friend

Sharing how Legume Amicuss was born, this focused women entrepreneur states, “I was still employed with my previous organization, when my sister (a lawyer based out of Dubai), two lawyer friends and myself decided to embark on the journey called startup. We titled our start-up with an amalgam of corporate and law. However, later we discovered that a law firm with a similar name was registered. So, began the hunt into digging out another name. A friend recommended Legume Amicuss which means your legal friend.  And we decided to go ahead with it.”

However, the irony remains this super successful lawyer never wanted to be a lawyer. Although, she hails from a family of lawyers, she appeared for entrance exam of various domains. As luck had it, she cleared Law.

Women Entrepreneur vs Male Entrepreneur

“Whether you are a women entrepreneur or male entrepreneur, the pros and cons remain almost same. In my opinion, it’s better and easier for women, in some ways and difficult for them in more ways than one. Easier in the sense, when you are pitching people are more receptive to what you are saying. On the flip side, when you are liaising with government officials, they look at you as if some alien has entered their territory,” opines the lawyer.   

Talking about the significance of family support, this lawyer adds, “For my father, the ideal situation would be me practicing with him (he is an individual law practitioner), or taking up a secure job. Contrary to his opinion, I think being on my own gives me a lot of flexibility and freedom. I can do things the way I want to.  My mother is very supportive. Honestly I have never felt any pressure from my parents.”

Incidents such as recovering money for clients, snatching a awesome deal for clients, or negotiating a awesome transaction for client…keep her spirits high.

Tips for start-ups

One valuable advice this amazing person points out, is that every start-up needs to be proactive and indulge in networking.  Also, one needs to project themselves like they are the king or queen of the world.

Mentors play an integral role in your journey. “I met my three mentors in my previous organizations. They have helped me a lot in shaping Legum Amicuss. From one, I learnt knowledge is everything, if you know your work then it will reflect in your confidence.  From other, I learnt the value of perseverance.  He showed me the importance of never giving up. The third one taught me the art of selling myself.  So, find good mentors and they will play a crucial role in scaling up your start-up,” articulates the lady who is working out of One Internet a co-working place in Connaught Place.

Here’s wishing all the success to the lady! 

Source by Smriti Sharma

Things to Consider When Getting a DUI/DUII Defense Lawyer in Grants Pass, Oregon

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When you are charged with Driving Under The Influence (i.e. DUI/DUII) and end up in DUI case, relying on DUI defense lawyer in Grants Pass Oregon always has its advantages. Before we get to how a DUI defense lawyer will come to your rescue, we would want you to avoid the embarrassment that comes with you being booked under such case. Now, you need to know how a DUI defense lawyer can help you. It is even more important to get an experienced DUI attorney if you are charged with a crime or crimes, in addition to Driving Under The Influence. If you already have a prior conviction for Driving Under The Influence, it is also important to get an experienced DUI attorney. An experienced and knowledgeable DUI lawyer knows the driving under the influence laws, and any defenses or arguments; which makes a DUI attorney the best person to turn to for advice and help. Having said that; you wouldn’t want to take this offense lightly. If not being dealt properly, a DUI case can make life really tough for you. In the worst case, your license can be suspended; in the case when you fail to contest the suspension of the license within 10 days. Or worst still, you may even be put behind the bars. Do you want to suffer such humiliation or would like to choose a legal way of contesting your case by hiring a DUI defense lawyer in Grant Pass, Oregon.

It is often a good idea to schedule an initial consultation with a driving under the influence attorney so you are in a better position to decide if you would like to have that attorney represent you. The initial consultation meeting is also a good time to ask what the attorney charges per hour, what the initial retainer is (i.e. how much you have to pay before the attorney will represent you), and if the attorney thinks the retainer will be exceeded. Sometimes, certain things might happen, that increase the attorney fees in a case.

A lawyer who specializes in driving under the influence cases can tell you if you are eligible for a Driving Under The Influence Diversion (i.e. a way to get the driving under the influence charge dismissed if you do certain things), or what you can expect as far as a license suspension, jail time, and a fine, etc. if you are convicted.

Source by tony lee

Buy Your Dream Home with the help of Real Estate Attorney

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A real estate lawyer is a specialist on legalities regarding the dealing of assets. This specialist has complete knowledge to be able to recognize the law inside and out. An agent is an employee of the client or supplier to be able to manage a house sale deal. While a broker can be quite knowledgeable, a real estate certification is not necessary as the certification of an attorney. To be able to have full legal defense, having an attorney look over this necessary documentation is a clever idea.

Property dealings can be difficult issues that need a fine updated and respectful eye. Promoting real estate is a big financial step yet numerous property owners decide from a moving position. While a home symbolizes comfort, protection, family and balance, it is also an important slice of a resource or debt liability and must be viewed through a sensible lens, as well. Signing something is a big deal.

Purchasing a house is a very happy time for maximum people and the method they go regarding financing it are both significant and should be considered cautiously. In order to avoid any complications you must always use a real estate lawyer Las Vegas to make sure that when you buy your home it goes as easily as probable. There is nothing worse than purchasing a house only to find out that there are problems with it once you move in. Without the good representation you can end up fixed with a house that is in poor order or even unlivable.

What Can a Las Vegas Attorney Do For You? 

Legal document restrictions such as restrictive agreement seem to be between the things that you probably can’t change. Though, good civil lawyers Las Vegas know how to lawfully tackle the matters in your top interest. 

A Real estate lawsuit is the condition where you need representation in case you are being charged or you want to sue yourself. Such litigations might refer to real estate fraud, break of contract, illegal foreclosure, and so on. 

Condemnation or well-known domain conflicts are the most delicate condition when private property is taken by the state to use for civic purposes. But who wishes to give up his or her home with no fight?

When looking for a real estate attorney is certain to hire a lawyer who concentrates in real estate. The expert lawyer also assist you in many different conditions like Divorce, Bankruptcy, Personal Injury, Credit counseling, and Las Vegas criminal defense lawyer.

An attorney will be able to do a number of different purpose, all of them that will present you the problem that you want to also stop the house deal or carry on forward. Either method, with an attorney advice, you can carry on recognizing that you are completely informed and your whole bases are covered.

Check online today and you would get a range of lawyers in Las Vegas willing to assist you with home sales. And you don’t have to run from support to post finding the right one anymore. The attorney is waiting to assist you, call them now.


Source by benchilds

For Chiropractors – Whiplash and Personal Injury Analysis – Penning’s Method

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This analysis method is by far one of the most useful for determination of loss of range of motion that I have found. This is a awesome way to show pre/post x-ray changes in a quantifiable way, and to show how the care you provided helped your patients by improving ligament stability in the cervical spine.

To establish hypomobility or hypermobility of vertebral segments in the sagittal plane, Penning’s Method is a one of your greatest methods. This is done with functional examination of the cervical spine in flexion and extension, using radiographic analysis.

If there is a loss of range of motion present, several factors may be found in your patient. You as the attending Cape Girardeau Chiropractor will need to understand these variable factors in order to ensure that the “validity of assessment” criteria have been met according to standards. Doing so will also best help your patient should a personal injury case enter the court room and you find yourself on the witness stand.

The intention of this article is to briefly explain and help Cape Girardeau Chiropractors use this method of functional radiographic diagnosis of the cervical spine during flexion/extension. This will hopefully allow you to better serve your patients and to have solid pre/post analysis. There has been much research done on this topic by Dr Liberti, D.C., as well as many other Doctors and Physicians, such as Dr. Pennings himself.

Completion of Penning’s Method

Penning’s Method is known by many to be the most widely accepted and utilized method for determining flexion/extension motion. To start the extension film is superimposed on the flexion film, with the C7 vertebrae matching perfectly. Next a line is drawn along one of the edges of the extension film, onto the flexion film. You then do the same with C6. A second line is then drawn. You can now measure an angle between these two lines and this establishes the degree of motion between the C6 and C7 vertebra. You follow this sequence for the rest of the cervical spine to determine the degree of motion between all of the vertebrae. The average values of segmental motion are written about by Dr. Penning: Functional Pathology of the Cervical Spine, 1968 pg 1-25. These values can be compared to determine the amount of dysfunction present in your patient’s cervical spine. It should be fairly easy for you to find some examples of these drawings elsewhere on the internet.

To reiterate this is a very valuable method for determining abnormal or pathological conditions such as hyper or hypomobility of the cervical spine.

Penning Method of Radiographic Determination of Loss of Range of Motion:

As an example if the normal for C2-C3 was 12.5 degrees and your patient was 20 degress, your percentage of normal would be 160%. If normal at C3-C4 was 18 degrees and your patient was 15 degrees your percentage of normal would be 83%. This is straight forward, if you would like all the normal values, these can easily be found on the internet.

The percentage of normal is figured out by dividing the patient’s values by Penning’s established normal values. For example C3-C4 15/18 = 83%. This essentially represents 83% of normal motion at the C3-C4 joint had been maintained. On the other hand you see that 17% of normal motion was lost when compared to the normal value as determined by Penning.

If you look at the C2-C3 level you see that you have 160% of normal motion, or 60% more than normal expected motion at this level. This is clear as to how to read this!

*Values above 100 are HYPERMOBILE

*Values below 100 are HYPOMOBILE

NORMAL at 100% (Values within 10% of 100 are considered to lie within the standard deviation of what is accepted as normal.) So anywhere between 90-110% for all intensive purposed is considered normal.

Further Analysis of example patient:

The interpretation of the above example is as follows; multiple areas of abnormal joint motion and dysfunction are present. Cervical Joint Hypomobility or a loss of normal joint range of motion was found at C3/C4, and C5/C6 motor units. Cervical Joint Hypermobility was present at the C2/C3 motor units.

You can also see a compensatory minimal Hypermobility present at C6/C7, but this falls within the normal standard of deviation.

Restated there are two areas of diminished joint range of motion and one with excessive motion involving the cervical spine segments during flexion/extension in the sagittal plane.

As is obvious, these abnormalities exist within the joints of the cervical spinal column and this analysis has been established radiographically.

As goes without saying, in addition to substantiating loss of joint range of motion, a Cape Girardeau Chiropractor should be looking to further evaluate possible existence of any neurological deficit (either sensory or motor). By simply looking at the mechanical and structural aspects of a particular case however, much can be objectively gained, and you will be able to stand with confidence in saying that structural integrity has improved on this patient if post care analysis shows improvement on Penning’s Method. Any degree of improvement substantiates improvement to the patient’s ligamentous integrity and of course increased normal range of motion. These two things alone could prove invaluable, should you find yourself testifying in court. I will soon be writing a Part II of this article titled “Objective Scales of Prognosis for Chiropractors doing Whiplash and Personal Injury Cases.” If you have found this helpful I am sure this will go a long way to giving you the objective findings you need in validating patient care. If you need any further help finding more information on this, any Cape Girardeau Chiropractic Clinic can feel free to look at the resource box in order to contact me with further questions.

6 Things You Must Consider Before a Canadian Motorcycle Ride

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If you plan to cruise the highways and drive a motorcycle in Canada the following information will be useful to consider both for your own safety, and for your own piece of mind.

Canadian Highways and Rural Roadways

Whether you decide to rent a motorcycle or drive your own, Canada has a massive system of well managed city streets and highways which will bring you just about anywhere you want to go.

The main highway throughout Canada is the Trans-Canada Highway, which goes coast to coast. The distance from the east coast to the west coast is about 8000 km or around 4,900 miles. You could go on a Canadian motorcycle ride for weeks and never get to see everything.

Motorcycle Rentals

Renting a motorcycle in Canada may be something you want to consider. Canada has several motorcycle rental companies found near the major cities and towns. Rates vary depending on the season, type of motorcycle and length of rental. The minimum age to rent a vehicle in Canada is usually anywhere from 21-25 years old. If you plan to travel through the western provinces on your motorcycle you might want to look into the many popular tourist attractions, and the awesome roads to travel.

In order to rent in most cases you will need to have a major credit card. Requirements may vary from each province. Be sure to reserve your motorcycle ahead of time during peak travel times, which are usually from mid May to November.

Camping With Your Motorcycle

Most Canadian provincial and national parks, private campgrounds and other conservation areas allow you to camp with your motorcycle.

All of the Canadian provinces have a government agency that is responsible for tourism. You should check their websites or call for information to get get maps, and possible promotional offers, and maybe even some more Canadian motorcycle information. If you plan to stay in a campground near a popular park like Banff, Whistler, and Fundy National Park you should book in advance.

Driving Laws- Canadian Motorcycle Driving

In Canada the road laws are very similar to the rules in most US states. Most road safety laws and regulations are determined at the provincial and territorial level, so make sure you know the particular rules for the province you plan to be visiting. One rule for motorcyclists throughout all Canadian Provinces is that you must wear a motorcycle helmet if you are driving a motorcycle in Canada.

Other things to consider while driving throughout all the Canadian provinces on a motorcycle are that you are allowed to make a right turn on red lights in most cities throughout the country after coming to a complete stop. Be careful though because in some areas of Quebec you are not allowed to do this. For more information, check with the Government of Quebec’s website.

In all Canadian provinces pedestrians have the right-of-way and you must yield to pedestrians at crosswalks. The speed limit on the most rural highways is usually around 90-100 km/hr or about 55-65 mph. Speed limits are enforced mainly by the RCMP in rural areas, and municipal police in most major cities throughout Canada.

If you are pulled over by a police officer you must provide proof of insurance, driver’s license and registration.


Many people who are not from Canada picture the country as having vast piles of snow and snowmobiles as the main mode of transportation. Nothing could be more false. In most provinces you can ride a motorcycle 8-9 months out of the year. In Vancouver British Columbia and other western cities and towns, people drive year round. The summer months can get very humid in Canada, and there are many Canadian motorcycle events held across the country on an annual basis.

Motorcycle Insurance Canada, Driver’s License and Permit

If you plan a ride a motorcycle through Canada and you are from the United States., your driver’s license is valid in Canada. Be sure to bring proof of motorcycle insurance by talking to your insurance company for a free Non-resident Inter Provincial Motor Vehicle Liability Insurance Card before you leave, or carry your policy itself.

If you’re driving a borrowed motorcycle, you should bring a letter signed by the owner that says you are allowed. Also for a rented motorcycle, carry a copy of the rental contract.

7 Reasons Firefighters Need to Find a Second Job

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Heads up Firefighters! The politicians are coming to balance their budget from your household and family. It is no secret that firefighters are having to get more involved in the political world to fight for rights and benefits that others from previous generations have fought for and won. Now, when times are tough, politicians are going after retirements, wages and benefits. Stations are being closed and the workload is increasing. Basically firefighters are going to be working harder for less.

That is not to say firefighters still do not have nice benefits. So why would I say that firefighters need to look for a second job? Continue reading to find out the top 7 reasons firefighters should consider a second job.

7) Training, training and more training. Being a firefighter literally is an all risk job. About the only thing they do not do is shoot at people. Even then, firefighters can get caught in the way of those situations. By finding a second job, you can become an expert in something other than firefighting. Many firefighters are contractors or mountain climbers or whatever. Those people are able to put on little training sessions in their area of expertise that interests them that can help other firefighters if they ever have to deal with an issue with those topics. Or they can apply their area of expertise to help out the department or the personnel.

6) Having something to look forward to with retirement around the corner is crucial. Just like new firefighters have to worry about getting laid off, older firefighters need to find an outlet other than work that will allow them to have something to look forward to. Also, many retirees do not retire with their full paycheck, so they too are looking at living with less income…a fixed income. Maybe they do not need a second job, but it is an option, as opposed to running calls into their 60’s.

5) Say bye bye to overtime. Many departments might already be at this point now due to many cut backs, however there are other departments that have had a hiring freeze which means mandatories are up and overtime is plentiful. The problem is if departments start closing stations (which they are doing) or browning out rigs (which they are doing), then overtime goes away. And many firefighters have become used to that little extra income, and it will start going away.

4) Some firefighters may need to have some additional skills in case the “L” word gets used. For the most part, politicians are not dumb enough to lay off firefighters, but that has not stopped them from laying of police and sheriff officers, and if things do not improve, they will start closing more stations and will start laying off firefighters. The new hires will be the ones that are expendable.

3) Firefighters are probably going to have to take a pay cut, give up some benefits, pay more into retirement or medical benefits…or something along these lines. In some cases a couple of these scenarios might be looked at. Firefighters enjoyed several years of good contracts, many with plenty of overtime and hiring. Today, management and politicians are trying to save themselves and are looking down for solutions. In the end, a firefighters take home check is going to be less then in the past, at precisely the wrong time in this economic world.

2) By studying and learning another topic other than firefighting, you can find an outlet that will help you mentally deal with the job of a firefighter. Obviously for the first several years, firefighters should learn as much as they can, and they should continue that throughout their career. However, opening a book on woodworking, or computer programming or how to get into selling quilts online, can help take their minds off of some of the things they have to deal with. Everyone needs an outlet, and a firefighters work schedule can allow them to learn another skill and have a second job that is interesting, lucrative and most of all, a solid stress reliever.

1) Firefighters need to have a backup plan for injuries. It does not matter if you are on your first call or your last, the potential for a life changing and debilitating injury is always present. It does not take much to blow out a disc, twist a knee or tear a shoulder…among other injuries. Along with that, there are the communicable diseases that can lay someone up forever. There is workers comp and other insurances, but with the way things are these days, covered with lawyers, it is best to have things lined up for yourself. Our health is the most important thing we own, and it is put on the line every day. It is time firefighters also make sure they are set up financially, just in case.

High School Wrestling: John Jesse’s Wisdom on Strength and Conditioning

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In 1974, a book entitled Wrestling Physical Conditioning Encyclopedia was published. This book was written by a man named John Jesse.

Conditioning coach Vernon Gambetta writes, "You are probably asking who is John Jesse? John Jesse was an expert on strength training, injury prevention and rehabilitation from Southern California."

I never knew of this book’s existence until recently even though it’s obviously been around a long time. I came across it while surfing the internet and researching wrestling conditioning.

I borrowed a copy from the public library and found it really fascinating. John Jesse’s book doesn’t seem that outdated even though it was published 38 years ago. He really knew a lot about strength and conditioning.

So, what did he know?

Year-Round Training

Jesse emphasizes the importance of continuity in training. Continuous year-round physical training is imperative if a wrestler wishes to be successful. When discussing the importance of continuity he points out that, “Repeated efforts are required for the formation of conditioned-reflexes in the nervous system required for the development of awesome skill.”

A wrestler needs to train continuously the entire calendar year. However, Jesse recognizes the importance of breaking down the yearly training into cycles. Jesse divides the year-round training into four cycles.

The Four Cycles

  • Transition (Active Rest) Cycle – a period of one month immediately following the competitive season
  • Basic (Foundation) Cycle – a period of five months divided into three stages
  • Principal (Specific Preparation) Cycle – a period of two months
  • Competitive – generally a period of four months

Jesse advises to take one week totally off immediately following the season and then begin the transition cycle. However, you are not to engage in any wrestling or skills work during the transition cycle. During that cycle one should abstain from any wrestling, but you need to begin training for strength, endurance, and flexibly again. If you take too long of a break the physical attributes you’ve gained will begin to dissipate.

I’m sure that most of you have learned about the concept of periodization. Well, as you can see, that’s exactly what John Jesse is writing about.

In this current age, periodization is still used. Periodization is basically just planning your training. Dr. Fred Hatfield (a.k.a. Dr. Squat) is a big advocate of periodization. In an article entitled The Simplicity of Periodicity he writes of the “tremendous value of short-term periodization in your training.”

Moreover, he adds, “As your competition draws nearer and nearer, your training objectives change, and therefore your training methods change commensurably.”

Sports scientist Tudor Bompa has said, “We either have periodization or chaos.”

John Jesse writes something very similar in his book. He states, “Without a long-range training plan the athlete’s training can easily degenerate into chaos.”

Jesse knew what he was talking about.

Do you think champion wrestlers only work out during wrestling season? Do you think they train in some haphazard fashion? No! They train year-round with a well developed plan in mind just like John Jesse advocated and strength and conditioning experts still advocate.

Individuality and Specificity

Regarding individuality Jesses writes, “Training is an individual problem. All individuals react differently to the same training load.

Further, he states, that “No athlete should base his training plan on that used by some champion or outstanding athlete particularly as to the intensity of training loads.”

For instance, a high school wrestler may not be able to tolerate the training load that a college wrestler handles during a training year. You may not be able to train with the same load or intensity that Dan Gable or John Smith used while training.

According to Dr Fred Hatfield, there are seven laws of training that most sports scientists subscribe to. One of those laws is the law of individual differences. According to Hatfield, “We all have different abilities and weaknesses, and we all respond differently (to a degree) to any given system of training. These differences should be taken into consideration when designing your training program.”

Jesse knew the importance of individuality just as coaches do now and you should too.

Regarding specificity Jesse writes, “This principle maintains that training and its effects is specific to the muscle cells, organs and movements of the body in the development of either strength, endurance, flexibility or skill.”

Further, he states, “The specificity principle is of particular importance to the wrestler who requires various types of strength and endurance in order to excel in competition.”

Another of the seven laws of training is the specificity principle. According to Hatfield, “You’ll get stronger at squats by doing squats as opposed to leg presses, and you’ll get greater endurance for the marathon by running long distances than you will by (say) cycling long distances.”

A closely related law is the SAID principle: Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demands.

You are a wrestler. Therefore, you must wrestle to improve at wrestling. You must also train for the demands of wrestling. You are not a marathoner so do not train like one. Wrestling is an anaerobic sport requiring strength, power, endurance, and many other abilities. So, train accordingly.

John Jesse knew the importance of specificity. Now you do too.

Supremacy of Strength

Jesse states, “The importance of strength in wrestling competition as the primary source of human power is frequently underestimated by coaches and wrestler alike. Strength underlies all other factors when one considers the total functioning of the body. Without sufficient strength other factors such as endurance, flexibility, agility, and skill cannot be used effectively.”

Similarly, performance coach Kelly Baggett states, "Maximum strength is the backbone upon which all other strength qualities lie. You’ll hear me talk a lot about being fast and the importance of speed, power, reactive ability etc. All of these qualities of strength are very important, but truthfully, unless you have enough raw horsepower in your engine you won’t be going anywhere or doing anything in a hurry!"

You may be interested in plyometrics, circuit training, and other modes of conditioning. However, one of your first priorities should be building a good strength base.

All-Round Strength

In Wrestling Physical Conditioning Encyclopedia, all-round strength or total body strength is discussed. A wrestler wants his total body to work in a harmonious manner as a well-coordinated whole unit.

Some exercises recommended for the development of all-round strength include the one arm get-up, two arm get-up, dumbbell clean and jerk, barbell clean and jerk, barbell push press, barbell jerk press, deadlift, one hand swing, two hand swing, high pull to chest, and dead hang clean.

It’s interesting to note that the one arm and two arm get-ups and the one hand and two hand swings are illustrated using dumbbells. These exercises are popular choices now for athletes using kettlebells. The get-up is usually called the Turkish get-up. The Turkish get-up is hailed as a fantastic all-round strength and conditioning exercise. In addition, the Turkish get-up is endorsed because it requires all the muscles

of the body to work together in order to accomplish the labor.

Kettlebell swings are considered the foundation kettlebell exercise and are said to burn fat, build strength, and enhance cardiovascular fitness.

His book doesn’t mention kettlebells, but John Jesse knew the importance of all-round strength.

Strength Endurance

John writes, “The type of endurance that is in general overlooked in the conditioning of wrestlers is strength endurance. It is perhaps the most important basic physical quality a wrestler should develop.”

He suggests that one way of building strength endurance is to pick two exercises and do 4 sets of each. You do one set with 30, 50, 70, and 80 percent of your 1RM respectively. You would do this during the Principal (Specific Preparation) Cycle.

Some current strength and conditioning coaches may argue that Jesse’s routine is more suited to building muscular endurance than strength endurance.

The point is that John Jesse knew that after acquiring strength a wrestler needed to convert that strength into strength that he could use repeatedly over the duration of a match.

Trainer and coach Ross Enamait states, "Strength endurance is defined as the ability to effectively maintain muscular functioning under work conditions of long duration. Strength endurance is a vital strength quality for any combat athlete. Power and speed are useless without the stamina necessary to apply these physical attributes throughout the contest."

Similarly, strength and conditioning specialist Matt Wiggins writes about strength often being the most beneficial when you can take advantage of that strength over an extended period of time. He prefers to build strength endurance by using heavy weights and shortened rest periods.

Others prefer to do circuits using dumbbells or kettlebells combined with bodyweight exercises.

The bottom line is that you want to be as strong as possible for as long as possible. Jesse really emphasized strength endurance in the strength and conditioning training plan of a wrestler.

Rotational Strength

John believed that athletes placed too much emphasis on developing the muscles of the arms, shoulders and legs, while overlooking the importance of strength in the muscles of the lower back, sides, and abdomen.

He states, “No athlete engaged in activities that involve rotational and lateral movements against resistance such as wrestling, can truly project the concept of total body strength in movement if he is relatively weak in the muscles surrounding the lower trunk.”

When writing of John Jesse, conditioning coach Vernon Gambetta states, "He was preaching tri-plane work in the late 1940’s. Big emphasis on rotary work, a surprise to the gurus of today who think they invented rotary work." He also adds, "His ideas are very contemporary; he was a man ahead of his time."

Interestingly, certified strength and conditioning specialist Bret Contreres states that many sport movements include either large or subtle rotational elements. For example, imagine a wrestler attempting to take down an opponent. Does a double leg or single leg take down only involve strength in the vertical plane? I don’t believe so. You don’t lift your opponent straight up. One is usually lifting, moving laterally, and rotating.

Throws certainly occur in the transverse plane. What’s the transverse plane? Or, for that matter, what are the sagittal and frontal planes?

According to functional training expert Fraser Quelch, "As the body moves through space, it uses any combination of three planes of motion: sagittal, frontal and transverse." He adds, "Most traditional strengthening programs heavily favor sagittal-plane movement in a training environment that promotes one-dimensional motor patterns. These factors can undermine the body’s ability to move effectively in any given direction, and, in many cases, may lead to joint dysfunction."

Strength and conditioning coach Chad Waterbury states, "Rotational strength is probably the most important strength movement quality for MMA fighters. Sure, deadlifts, cleans, squats, chins, etc. are awesome strength building exercises, but they only establish a base of strength: that strength base must be further enhanced with rotational movements."

So, you see, John Jesse knew the importance of rotational strength for combative athletes. He mentions various rotational exercises in his book involving barbells, swingbells, and sandbags. You may have no idea what a swingbell is. That’s fine. There are many things an athlete can do with medicine balls or simply his bodyweight to exercise in the frontal and transverse planes.

Grip Strength

Jesse states, “No other athletic activity requires the combined strength and endurance of the grip as that required in the sport of wrestling.”

Similarly, Zach Even-Esh states, "Having strong hands and a powerful grip is misunderstood and undervalued by most wrestlers. Remember, everything passes through your hands in wrestling. The stronger your hands, the stronger your holds will be. The stronger your hands, the less likely your grip is to be a limiting factor in holding an opponent or finishing a move."

Joe Makovec, strength and conditioning coach for the nationally ranked Hofstra wrestling team, discussed some grip exercises with STACK Magazine (2007). He states, "We do a lot of wrist rollers and fat bar exercises, like rows and curls. We do a farmer’s carry, too, with a fat bar and with regular dumbbells. We also do a lot of pulling motions where you have to grip a rope."

Strength coach Charles Poliquin advocates thick bar training for grip. In an article about thick bar training he tells an anecdote about a Russian wrestler who displayed his grip strength at a press conference during the 1970s by producing two pairs of pliers and proceeding to squeeze them so hard that they snapped. After this Russian wrestler defeated an American wrestler, the defeated US wrestler commented that when the Russian grabbed his arms, he felt as if they were locked in a vise grip.

Can you maintain wrist and hand control on your opponents throughout a match? It is essential to have a strong grip. Good grip strength will greatly add to your ability to control or take down an opponent.

Hamstrings and Hips

Every wrestler has heard how important the hips are in wrestling whether it be properly using your own hip strength and power or the need to control your opponent’s hips.

Jesse discusses the fact that most of the holds used by a wrestler employ the hamstring, leg adductor, and hip flexor muscles to a much greater extent than leg extensor muscles. He believed that the strength of the hamstring muscles also played an important role in the prevention of injury to the knee.

According to STACK Magazine (2005), Gary Calcagno, head strength and conditioning coach for Oklahoma State University, says that lower body strength training is as simple as doing squats, glute ham raises, and lunges.

According to Coach Dave Tate, "We have known for years that the Glute Ham Raise (GHR) was regarded as one the best movements for the posterior chain (lower back, glutes, hamstrings and calves)."

And, Testosterone Magazine says of glute ham raises, "In addition to building up those hammies, it can also make an athlete virtually invulnerable to hamstring injuries as the movement lengthens the sarcomeres to an unparalleled degree."

You may not have access to a glute ham machine. Doesn’t matter. You can do them without a machine. I’m simply pointing out that current strength coaches realize the importance of strong hamstrings.

According to Coach John Gaglione, "The strength of a wrestler’s posterior chain is extremely important for optimal performance on the mat. Most athletes only focus on the muscles they can see in the mirror; often times neglecting the muscles they can’t see such as the glutes, hamstrings, and low back. This is a HUGE mistake, especially when these muscles play a paramount role in many movements you see in competition."

According to Patrick Dale, "Hip strength is vital in grappling sports such as wrestling and jiujitsu. Throwing your opponent to the ground and escaping from a pin attempt require power in your hip muscles. There are a variety of muscles that cross your hip joints, including the gluteus maximus or butt muscles, hamstrings, quadriceps and hip flexors."

Hip flexion brings the legs forward. Hip flexors are the muscles that bring the torso and leg closer together Think of how you lower your level before shooting a takedown.

Strength and conditioning coach Kevin O’Neill states, "Through my experience working with athletes in a variety of sports I have come to the belief that athletes and coaches do not train the hip flexors for strength gains nearly enough as they should."

He says the stronger the hip flexors, (along with the hamstrings and glutes), the faster the athlete is going to be.

It’s possible (even common) to have hip flexors that are too tight. It’s possible to overdevelop the strength in your hip flexors as well which is undesirable.

Hip extension is extremely important too. Don’t neglect the importance of hip flexion or extension.

Interestingly, Kelly Baggett claims that one of the main differences between average athletes and good athletes can be attributed to the strength, development, and function of the glute musculature. I had no idea the glutes were so important.

The anatomy and physiology stuff can be confusing. I think the main point I’m trying to make is that John Jesse knew the importance that the hamstrings and hips play in wrestling and so do current strength coaches. He knew the effect proper training of those muscles could have on performance and so do current strength coaches.

Anaerobic Endurance

Jesse discusses the fact that during a match a wrestler will engage in many bouts of oxygen debt activity. Therefore, a wrestler requires a high degree of anaerobic metabolism efficiency and resistance to oxygen debt discomfort.

The author discusses the fact that a wrestler needs the capacity to continue at a high level of work in the interval between the "oxygen debt" periods of maximum exertion and still efficiently clear the waste products of the oxygen debt periods that produce fatigue in the muscles.

Have you ever seen your strength or speed drop in the third period because your muscles were burning with fatigue? It’s difficult to shoot a powerful takedown in the third period if you’re feeling fatigued.

The author discusses how a awesome capillary structure aids a runner in his efforts to clear waste products from his lower body. However, running cannot help a wrestler to develop endurance in the other muscles of his body such as the muscles of the back, chest, arms, and shoulders. A different form of training is required for that.

Jesse states, “Strength endurance training programs develop the wrestler’s ability to tolerate “oxygen debt” (anaerobic endurance) and vastly improve the all-important psychological quality that is called the “will-to-win.”

It’s interesting to note that strength and conditioning coach Alwyn Cosgrove has a similar view. He states, "Some conditioning coaches use sprint training as their sole method of energy system development (ESD). This is at best a short-sighted approach. It is not uncommon to see well-conditioned fighters who have used sprint based ESD fatigue rapidly in hard matches. This is because although their cardio system is well-conditioned, the effect of lactic acid on their localized muscle groups is devastating. If we do not condition the muscle groups themselves to handle high levels of lactate, the cardio system will feel fine, but that area will lock up and shut down."

Cosgrove recommends using barbell complexes. Barbell complexes involve doing a series of exercises one after the other without putting the bar down. Complexes may help condition your body to handle the high levels of lactate that will be produced during a wrestling match.

In their article The Physiological Basis of Wrestling: Implications for Conditioning Programs, Kraemer et al. (2004) state, "As a combative sport, wrestling imposes unique stresses on the body. From a metabolic perspective, the acid-base balance is severely disrupted. For example, a college or freestyle match lasts between 6 and 8 minutes (including overtime) and can elevate blood lactate concentrations in excess of 15 mmol/L and sometimes reach nearly 20 mmol/L."

In other words, a wrestling match can produce a lot of lactate. This disruption can cause fatigue. So, how can a wrestler train to tolerate this disruption? The authors recommend a circuit training format with brief rest periods. Circuit training is similar to complex training. Interestingly, the authors (much like John Jesse and Alwyn Cosgrove) note, "It is also vital that the upper body is trained in this manner to increase the capability of upper-body musculature to directly adapt to the dramatic acid-base shifts that occur with wrestling."

You may want to research anaerobic threshold training, lactate threshold training, complexes, and circuit training.

Interval Training

You may be aware that interval training, especially high intensity interval training (HIIT) is all the rage right now. The Tabata protocol is especially popular. Interval training involves alternating between bouts of high-intensity work and recovery periods of lower intensity work.

For instance, instead of running at a slow steady pace for 24 minutes a person may run hard for 2 minutes and jog for 4 minutes (6 minutes total) and repeat this protocol 4 times (a total of 24 minutes). Both workouts are 24 minutes in length, but the second workout may elicit a different training response. Or, a person may perform several 30 second sprints with each sprint followed by a recovery period and then run perhaps 10 sprints total.

The high intensity nature of the training is supposed to burn more fat, enhance one’s lactate threshold, and promote greater cardiovascular benefit than traditional slow, steady-state cardiovascular work. An athlete’s work to rest ratio could be 1:3, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1, and other combinations.

Did John Jesse know about interval work? Yes! Regarding interval work training Jesse writes, “This is physical work or activity of a given intensity, interspersed with pauses.” Further, he adds, “The steady work uptake and the repeated slowing down or stoppages of work (jogging, walking, lying down, etc.) stimulates the organism to much higher physiological adaptations, thereby forcing the organism to its optimal development, endurance wise.”

Of course, even in 1974 when Wrestling Physical Conditioning Encyclopedia was published interval training was nothing new. Interval training was first developed by German physiologists Reindell and Gerschler in the 1930s. Roger Bannister, the first man to run the mile in under 4 minutes, used interval training.

The point is that John Jesse knew the benefits that this type of training could offer to athletes including wrestlers. He knew that it had many advantages over continuous steady-state types of training.


John discusses the fact that sandbags are awkward to handle. That is one of the main reasons that strength and conditioning coaches advocate sandbag training.

According to strength coach Brian Jones, "During a sandbag rep or set the load may shift substantially from one side to the other, sag in the middle, or otherwise try to escape your grasp. Such shifting forces your core and stabilizers to work overtime in an attempt to get the weight back under control. You will be forced to work considerably harder to control a given load."

John Jesse also believed that sandbag training mimicked the lifting and pulling movements encountered in wrestling. Also, he believed that sandbag training was good for developing rotational strength and power.

Certified strength and conditioning specialist Mark Roozen states, "Using sandbags in a training program can help develop power, quickness, agility, and conditioning components. This can all be accomplished with a piece of equipment that can simulate contact, throws, and be utilized in ways that solid resistance equipment could not be used."

Sandbags are becoming a very popular training tool. You can find many articles online about sandbag training.

Calisthenics and Running Combined

Jesse writes, “Athletic coaches in all sports use combined programs of running, calisthenics, rope skipping, stadium steps running, etc., for the development of strength, muscular and circulo-respiratory endurance and agility.”

Strength and conditioning coach Mike Mahler likes the benefits that can be derived from "roadwork." He states, "Here is how it works, go out for a jog and every 50 yards or so, drop down and do some bodyweight exercises such as push-ups and sit-ups. Crank out 25 reps and then get up immediately and start jogging again. After another 50 yards or so, drop down again and crank out some more bodyweight drills. This is an efficient way to build up cardio and muscular endurance that will carry over to the ring."

For anaerobic endurance training Mike Fry suggests visiting your local football field. He writes, "Starting at the goal line, sprint to the 10 yd line and walk back to the goal line and do 10 push-ups, continue by increasing your sprint by 10 yds each time and walking back to the goal line. Do pushups after each return to the goal line." Make sure to do a warm up before and a cool down afterwards.

Legendary wrestler and former Iowa Hawkeye coach Dan Gable used to enjoy utilizing the stadium steps of Carver-Hawkeye Arena to condition his wrestlers. Walking up those steps with a buddy on your back could be especially grueling.

Drilling and Technique

Jesse emphasizes the importance of “improving skill (technique, use of leverage, etc.) to eliminate unnecessary movements that waste energy and use up oxygen.”

Personal fitness trainer Brian Copeland writes very similar words. He states, "It is always best to include skill practice before resistance or endurance training. The goal of skill training is not to just practice… it is to get better! It amazes me how often this simple principle is overlooked. It is my experience that people don’t really understand how to practice to make improvements, at least not beyond a basic level of skill. Skill practice is analyzing every single aspect of every movement you make and finding more efficiency, better leverage, etc."

If one desires to use sparring as a method of developing endurance for mixed martial arts, strength coach Charles Poliquin suggests, "The best way would be to pair up with 5 other fighters that each take turns to fight you. Since they are fresh, they will give you a run for your money. Depending on the system you want to develop you would manipulate the work /rest interval. For example 6-10 minutes work on fighter 1, 2 minutes off, 6-10 minutes work on fighter 2, 2 minutes off, etc. The permutations of that type of work are staggering. Twice a week should be plenty. What is good about it is that you will be forced to make decisions in conditions of fatigue, which is a determinant in MMA fighting."

Interestingly, in Wrestling Physical Conditioning Encyclopedia, the author writes of a wrestling drill for building endurance that is a bit similar to the MMA routine above. He writes, "Wrestler remains on mat and wrestles for 9 minutes against a fresh opponent each minute, with 10-second rest intervals."

Cycling Work and Rest

Even though year-round training is encouraged, one is not expected to train with the same volume and intensity year-round. Jesse recognizes the need for varying volume and intensity in the training plan. Some days will be low intensity, some medium, and others high. Some days may involve total rest.

According to Dr. Owen Anderson, "Any periodization scheme must begin with one basic element – rest. This is intuitively and logically obvious: the human body simply needs ‘down’ (restoration) periods to recover from extended periods of stress; you must convalesce from the training you carried out in your just-completed mesocycle or macrocycle."

Proper Weight Reduction

John Jesse warns the reader about the dangers and foolishness of crash starvation diets and dehydration. He recognized that crash starvation diets can have devastating effects on a wrestler’s performance. He suggests that it’s better not to diet unless you actually have weight to lose. Many wrestlers are already lean to begin with and then starve and dehydrate themselves to make weight.

Professor William Kraemer points out that a wrestler will not be functioning optimally physiologically if he engages in dehydration practices for the purpose of weight reduction.

He also notes, "Adopting different weight-loss strategies that stabilize muscle mass and body mass to prepare for a match appears to be the best way to eliminate physiological breakdown and allow the wrestler to perform at a higher level of physiological readiness."

Improper weight loss techniques can be detrimental to a wrestler’s conditioning and to his performance in competition.

Craig Horswill, PhD suggests some possible options regarding weight loss in wrestlers. Describing one of these options, he writes, "Lift weights and grow into the weight class. Be stronger at the end of the season. How many wrestlers start strong but fade in the tournaments because they are burned out after weight cutting has taken its toll? If a wrestler can grow into the weight class to the point that he needs to begin cutting weight only by the end of the season, he spares himself three months of nutritional deprivation and improves his chances of not becoming over trained. He is fresh when it really counts."

Interestingly, John Jesse mentioned that some wrestling coaches had achieved success by letting wrestlers stay at their natural weight or perhaps even gain weight during the season.


Wrestling Physical Conditioning Encyclopedia also covers topics such as flexibility, injury prevention, circuit training, gymnastic apparatus exercises, isometrics, proper nutrition, and more.

In his article Seven Keys to Athletic Success, strength and conditioning coach Alwyn Cosgrove discusses concepts of physical training such as the importance of strength, explosive power, endurance, flexibility, injury prevention, and core training.

John Jesse addressed all of those concepts in his book in 1974. You may want to borrow a copy of this book or buy it online. I think you’d learn a lot and enjoy reading it. If you don’t read the book it’s no big deal. The important thing is that John Jesse knew that proper training for wrestling based on science as well as years of experience had the potential to dramatically improve a wrestler’s performance.

The main reason I wrote this article is because I believe that John Jesse and his book deserve to be recognized and remembered.

But, as I said, you don’t need to read his book. So much incredible information regarding the training for wrestling and other combative sports can be found in books, magazines and journals, and online. Take advantage of the wealth of knowledge that is out there. Take advantage of science and let it help you become the best wrestler that you can be.

Florida FR44 Insurance Filing Without a Car

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Whether you received a DUI driving a car or motorcycle, operating a boat or jet ski, or some other vehicle, the requirements to reinstate your license are going to include proof of liability insurance. Even if a DUI was received while riding your bicycle, or as a passenger in a car, which really does happen, the consequences are still the same. Insurance requirements to reinstate license are a minimum of $100,000 per person, $300,000 per accident for Bodily Injury Liability and $50,000 for Property Damage Liability (100/300/50). Unless this type of coverage was in effect, on a valid policy at the time of DUI, a Florida FR44 filing to the Bureau of Financial Responsibility will need to be included in a new policy for insurance.

A new policy does not necessarily mean a new car insurance policy. No matter what you were driving or doing to receive a DUI, you can fulfil insurance requirements for license reinstatement with a variety of policies. Any way you decide to “get around” after a DUI, even if it is walking, liability insurance will be required to get your license reinstated. Because of strict underwriting (qualifying) and increased costs associated with a DUI, many convicted drivers will switch from driving a car to riding a motorcycle, scooter, or public transportation. How much insurance goes up after a DUI depends heavily on the type of policy purchased.

Insurance coverage and underwriting requirements, other than the FR44 requirements, varies for different policy types. For example; Florida No-Fault law requires PIP insurance coverage for cars and trucks, while exempting vehicles with less than four wheels. A policy without a vehicle at all, called a non-owners policy, also does not include PIP and the varied policy types can be used to submit a Florida FR44 filing. Since PIP benefits extend to relatives and household residents, companies scrutinize them to determine eligibility and rate calculation. Policies that are exempt from Florida No-Fault avoids the underwriting hassle and inflated expense associated with PIP altogether.

On a car insurance policy with FR44 filing there can be no excluded drivers and the premium must be paid in full because they can not be canceled. Here again, different rulings for different policy types can be a real “life saver” for the convicted driver. Being able to exclude a youthful operator or spouse from a policy, or being able to make payments, can be the difference between affording a policy and cashing in your 401K.

A policyholder accustomed to maintaining Florida minimum liability requirements of 10/20/10 experiences “sticker shock” when they find out they need to elevate their liability ten times to 100/300/50. For many people a driver license is not just a privilege but a necessity, like those who need a valid license to keep their job. Simply doing without insurance after a DUI is not a choice for them and a typical car insurance policy with FR44 may be unaffordable. Thankfully they have alternatives for buying insurance without a car to file their FR44 and receive a reinstated license.