Fire Protection – Advantages and Benefits

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Compliance to standards and regulations is a requirement among business owners and managers. The same also goes to residents and homeowners. People have been trying to adopt fire protection standards and policies, as part of health and safety within existing organizations and communities. The efforts of fire authorities, aim to provide all possible means, by which people can lessen fire-related emergencies.

It is also true that many organizations have been having some difficulty, adopting said policies, particularly with the changes made in fire legislation in 2006. It is also common knowledge that non-compliance to fire standards would mean prosecution and penalties. On the contrary, the National Security Inspectorate (NSI) gladly explains the essentiality of legislative requirements, with hopes of bridging the gap between fire authorities and citizens. They care to explain the benefits as well as advantages, planning and preventive measures can bring.

The introduction of the Regulatory Reform Order in England and Wales, as well as the Fire (Scotland) Act 2005 speak of implications, affecting owners and occupants of public, multi-tenancy and public property. Regulatory requirements have been set to primarily protect residents, employees and workers from sustaining injury or loss, due to fires and accidents. Despite the changes, several studies somehow revealed that many people are simply unaware of regulatory requirements, leaving a likely chance of allowing fire emergencies to possibly happen. This mindset will clearly affect fire protection policies if not addressed properly. That is why people should have a clear understanding of why fire prevention is crucial in achieving protection and safety.

First point of concern would be the designation of a ‘responsible person.’ The position is given to the owners or occupants of premises. The task primarily includes provision of firefighting equipment and conduction of fire risk assessment. With huge responsibilities shouldered by a ‘responsible person,’ he is expected to comply with standards set by law. Otherwise, non-compliance will mean serious repercussions. It is also recommended that he/she follows fire regulations not only for legal purposes, as his failure to comply will definitely put his business and employees at risk.

Second, fire prevention policies will also determine your future in business. In cases where serious fires have taken place, non- compliance could mean refusal or non-existence of financial aid from insurance companies. As a business owner, it is crucial to clearly understand the legalities concerned, that is to ensure not only the safety but the future of your business after a tragedy.

Protection of oneself is achieved through practice and self-regulation. Fire prevention is undeniably, our way of protecting lives and properties. Initially, organizations may never see the advantage behind so called list of restrictions. However, the more you involve yourself and do your part, the more you will see the advantages of preventing small fires from totally consuming our health and wealth.

Fire prevention involves both homes and businesses. Requirements and regulations may differ in terms of substance and form, but the purpose remains the same. Generally, fires can be prevented from happening. This can be achieved by means of complying with regulatory requirements if not through constant awareness. Responsibility can be viewed as obligatory if not restrictive. However, if prevention will lead people towards protection against fires and related dangers, the responsibility slowly becomes a form of discipline.

A Substantive Due Process Challenge to the War on Drugs

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Substantive Due Process Analysis of the Incarceration of Drug Offenders

A. Framework

In Washington v. Glucksberg, Chief Justice Rehnquist described the framework for substantive due process analysis:

Our established method of substantive-due-process analysis has two primary features: First, we have regularly observed that the Due Process Clause specially protects those fundamental rights and liberties which are, objectively, “deeply rooted in this Nation’s history and tradition,” and “implicit in the concept of ordered liberty,” such that “neither liberty nor justice would exist if they were sacrificed.” Second, we have required in substantive-due-process cases a “careful description” of the asserted fundamental liberty interest. Our Nation’s history, legal traditions, and practices thus provide the crucial “guideposts for responsible decisionmaking,” that direct and restrain our exposition of the Due Process Clause. As we stated recently in Flores, the Fourteenth Amendment “forbids the government to infringe . . . ‘fundamental’ liberty interests at all, no matter what process is provided, unless the infringement is narrowly tailored to serve a compelling state interest.”

Applying this method, one must first examine freedom from incarceration to determine if it is a fundamental right. If so, government policies that require the incarceration of offenders, including drug offenders, must serve compelling interests and be narrowly tailored to achieve them. This article assumes for the sake of argument that drug problems give rise to compelling state interests. It then reviews the interests asserted by the government in its pursuit of its drug war policies and the results of those policies to determine whether the policy of incarcerating drug offenders is narrowly tailored to those asserted interests.

B. The Fundamental Liberty Interest: Freedom from Incarceration

Federal and state laws subject drug offenders to incarceration. Incarceration is a tremendous deprivation of liberty that triggers the protections of the Due Process Clause. The Supreme Court has recognized this right on a number of occasions. In DeShaney v. Winnebago County DSS for example, the court held:

[I]t is the State’s affirmative act of restraining the individual’s freedom to act on his own behalf–through incarceration, institutionalization, or other similar restraint of personal liberty–which is the “deprivation of liberty” triggering the protections of the Due Process Clause . . . .

Perhaps the earliest explicit recognition by the Supreme Court of freedom from incarceration as a fundamental right under substantive due process came in Allgeyer:

The ‘liberty’ mentioned in [the fourteenth] amendment means, not only the right of the citizen to be free from the mere physical restraint of his person, as by incarceration, but the term is deemed to embrace the right of the citizen to be free in the enjoyment of all his faculties; to be free to use them in all lawful ways; to live and work where he will; to earn his livelihood by any lawful calling; to pursue any livelihood or avocation; and for that purpose to enter into all contracts which may be proper, necessary, and essential to his carrying out to a successful conclusion the purposes above mentioned.

An 1891 law review article noted that Blackstone described “freedom from restraint of the person” as “perhaps the most important of all civil rights,” and that Lord Coke felt “the liberty of a man’s person is more precious to him than everything else that is mentioned [in the Magna Charta].” Blackstone states that “the rights of all mankind . . . may be reduced to three principal or primary articles; the right of personal security, the right of personal liberty, and the right of private property.” Indeed, the original Latin in the Magna Charta’s “law of the land” clause uses the term “imprisonetur.”

No court has invalidated a criminal statute through the application of substantive due process analysis to the fundamental right of freedom from incarceration. At the same time, no court has ruled to the contrary. The Supreme Court avoided the question in Reno v. Flores:

The “freedom from physical restraint” invoked by respondents is not at issue in this case. Surely not in the sense of shackles, chains, or barred cells, given the Juvenile Care Agreement. Nor even in the sense of a right to come and go at will, since, as we have said elsewhere, “juveniles, unlike adults, are always in some form of custody,” and where the custody of the parent or legal guardian fails, the government may (indeed, we have said must) either exercise custody itself or appoint someone else to do so.

This analysis would not apply to adult drug offenders. The Fourth Circuit also avoided addressing freedom from incarceration as a fundamental right in Hawkins v. Freeman:

Hawkins’s rhetorical reference to the right as being “freedom from unjust incarceration,” and that of amicus, American Civil Liberties Union of North Carolina, as the “right to be free from arbitrary incarceration,” are issue-begging generalizations that cannot serve the inquiry. A properly precise description can, however, be found in the facts and legal authorities relied upon by Hawkins in support of his claim. From these, we deduce that the precise right asserted is that of a prisoner to remain free on erroneously granted parole so long as he did not contribute to or know of the error and has for an appreciable time remained on good behavior to the point that his expectations for continued freedom from incarceration have “crystallized.”

Hawkins is distinguishable because it deals with an inmate whose parole was revoked. In any event, the casual dismissal as an “issue-begging generalization” flies in the face of nearly 800 years of common law tradition and over a century of Supreme Court decisions recognizing freedom from incarceration as a fundamental right. Indeed the language of the Supreme Court’s Ingraham decision supports the application of substantive due process proposed in this paper:

While the contours of this historic liberty interest in the context of our federal system of government have not been defined precisely, they always have been thought to encompass freedom from bodily restraint and punishment. It is fundamental that the state cannot hold and physically punish an individual except in accordance with due process of law.

The Court also stressed this fundamental liberty interest in Foucha v. Louisiana, a case involving the confinement of a person found not guilty by reason of insanity:

Freedom from bodily restraint has always been at the core of the liberty protected by the Due Process Clause from arbitrary governmental action. “It is clear that commitment for any purpose constitutes a significant deprivation of liberty that requires due process protection.” We have always been careful not to “minimize the importance and fundamental nature” of the individual’s right to liberty.

While the Foucha Court indicated that “a State may imprison convicted criminals for the purposes of deterrence and retribution,” the remark was dicta and did not involve any discussion of substantive limits on the police power. In Meachum v. Fano the Court made a similar remark in the context of a case dealing with prison conditions: “[G]iven a valid conviction, the criminal defendant has been constitutionally deprived of his liberty to the extent that the State may confine him.” Again there was no discussion of substantive limits on the police power. Indeed the previous sentence noted: “The Due Process Clause by its own force forbids the State from convicting any person of crime and depriving him of his liberty without complying fully with the requirements of the Clause.”

Recently in Zadvydas v. Davis, the Court noted:

The Fifth Amendment’s Due Process Clause forbids the Government to “depriv[e]” any “person … of … liberty … without due process of law.” Freedom from imprisonment–from government custody, detention, or other forms of physical restraint–lies at the heart of the liberty that Clause protects.

Freedom from incarceration is not just a fundamental right. It is the one of the most fundamental of rights.

C. Identifying the State’s Interests

Governmental drug policy interests identified in federal statutes include “demand reduction,” “supply reduction,” and “reducing drug abuse and the consequences of drug abuse in the United States, by limiting the availability of and reducing the demand for illegal drugs.”

Federal law sets specific goals for the National Drug Control Strategy. These include:

“Reduction of unlawful drug use to 3 percent of the population”;

“Reduction of adolescent unlawful drug use to 3 percent of the adolescent population”;

“Reduction of the availability of cocaine, heroin, marijuana, and methamphetamine”;

“Reduction of the respective nationwide average street purity levels for cocaine, heroin, marijuana, and methamphetamine”; and

“Reduction of drug-related crime.”

Goals are also set forth with regard to drug-related crime:

(i) reduction of State and Federal unlawful drug trafficking and distribution; (ii) reduction of State and Federal crimes committed by persons under the influence of unlawful drugs; (iii) reduction of State and Federal crimes committed for the purpose of obtaining unlawful drugs or obtaining property that is intended to be used for the purchase of unlawful drugs; and (iv) reduction of drug-related emergency room incidents . . . .

D. Defining “Narrow Tailoring” in the Context of Substantive Due Process

Assuming that the governmental interests are compelling, we must determine whether the incarceration of drug offenders is narrowly tailored to achieving them. The government must show that its policy passes strict scrutiny. The concept of narrow tailoring is not well defined in the context of substantive due process, but has been fairly well defined in regard to the First Amendment and Equal Protection. Equal Protection cases also arise out of the Fourteenth Amendment. In Wygant v. Jackson Bd. of Education the Supreme Court held: “Under strict scrutiny the means chosen to accomplish the State’s asserted purpose must be specifically and narrowly framed to accomplish that purpose.” In a footnote, the Court described narrow tailoring in even further detail:

The term “narrowly tailored,” so frequently used in our cases, has acquired a secondary meaning. More specifically, as commentators have indicated, the term may be used to require consideration of whether lawful alternative and less restrictive means could have been used. Or, as Professor Ely has noted, the classification at issue must “fit” with greater precision than any alternative means. “[Courts] should give particularly intense scrutiny to whether a nonracial approach or a more narrowly-tailored racial classification could promote the substantial interest about as well and at tolerable administrative expense.”

It is important to note here that a policy that does not advance the government’s interests violates substantive due process regardless of how it compares with the alternatives. If it does not accomplish its purpose, logic dictates it cannot be specifically and narrowly framed to accomplish its purpose.

E. Advancing Governmental Interests

Congress has identified certain tools for assessing the national drug control strategy. The National Household Survey is the measure for “unlawful drug use.” Similarly, “adolescent unlawful drug use” is to be measured “by the Monitoring the Future Survey of the University of Michigan or the National PRIDE Survey conducted by the National Parents’ Resource Institute for Drug Education.” On these measures, the goals are not being reached.

The measure of adolescent drug use that was specifically identified by Congress, illicit drug use in the past 30 days, worsened in 2001. More than 25% of US twelfth graders reported using illicit drugs in the past 30 days. That is nearly double the figure for 1992 and more than eight times the stated goal of 3%. Over 40% of 12th graders tried an illicit drug in the past year.

The PRIDE Survey and National Household Survey show similar results.

The drug war has also failed in its other goals. The Monitoring the Future Survey tracks how twelfth graders perceive the availability of drugs. Reducing availability is an explicit goal of the drug war. The perceived availability of marijuana in 2001 was slightly higher than in 1975. The figures for harder drugs are more disturbing. From 1975 to 1986, roughly 20% of twelfth graders said heroin was easy to get. That number shot up in the late 1980s and has remained consistently higher than 30%. Cocaine remains widely available to our youth, with nearly 50% of twelfth graders saying it is easy to get. The survey began measuring the availability of ecstasy in 1989, when only 22% of twelfth graders felt it was easy to get. In 2001, that number went over 61%, having jumped from 51% the year before.

Drug war policies are not achieving the stated drug war goals. They cannot be “specifically and narrowly framed to accomplish their purpose” because they are not accomplishing their purpose. Drug use has not been reduced in any significant way, and levels of drug use are far above the stated goals. Our children have easy access to drugs. We can’t even keep drugs out of jails. The drug war and the incarceration of drug offenders have also failed to achieve secondary goals regarding supply, demand, purity, drug-related health problems and drug-related crime. The policy of incarcerating drug offenders does not “directly advance[] the governmental interest asserted.” The War on Drugs is not working.

F. Alternative Means

Even if a court is persuaded that incarceration advances the government’s interests, the government must also show that its policy choice fits better than the alternatives. Critics of the drug war encompass a broad spectrum of backgrounds, and the range of “solutions” is just as wide. Libertarians and others favor outright legalization of drugs. The legalization of marijuana is a somewhat popular variation of overall legalization, and there are other variations such as the legalization of marijuana for medical purposes and decriminalization of drugs or marijuana. Another leading approach, known as harm reduction, looks at drugs from a public health perspective.

The effectiveness of some of these alternatives is difficult to assess. Even so, certain comparisons can be made. Advocates of treatment point to studies showing that treatment is much more effective than incarceration. Spencer notes:

The recidivism rate for first time Dade County drug offenders was sixty percent, but for those who successfully completed the Dade County Drug Court treatment programs, the recidivism rate reported by Dade County officials was only seven percent. Drug court treatment programs are also cost effective. It costs Florida only $2,000 to put a drug offender through a drug court program, as compared to $17,000 per drug offender for incarceration. As a result, other drug court programs are being established throughout the country.

Similarly, a Rand study found treatment to be seven times more cost-effective than current supply-control policy in reducing cocaine consumption.

G. The Incarceration of Drug Offenders is Not Narrowly Tailored

Incarceration involves a far greater infringement of fundamental rights than alternatives which are both more effective and less intrusive. The incarceration of offenders is not advancing the state’s asserted interests. The drug war is not narrowly tailored, failing the Supreme Court’s “established method of substantive-due-process analysis” as described by Chief Justice Rehnquist. The laws requiring the incarceration of drug offenders are therefore unconstitutional, if substantive due process analysis is applied.

IV. CONCLUSION

It is true that the approach suggested in this paper would limit the police power. Constitutional protection of individual rights exists for that very purpose. We face coercive government action, carried out in a corrupt and racist manner, with military and paramilitary assaults on our homes, leading to mass incarceration and innocent deaths. We can never forget the tyranny of a government unrestrained by an independent judiciary. Our courts must end the War on Drugs.

For the full article, with endnotes, see: http://www.redlichlaw.com/crim/substantive-due-process-drug-war.pdf

Personal Financial Planning – Risk Management

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Risk management in financial planning is the systematic approach to the discovery and treatment of risk. The objective is to minimize worry by dealing with the possible losses before they happen.

The process involves:

Step 1: Identification

Step 2: Measurement

Step 3: Method

Step 4: Administration

Risk Identification

The process begins by identifying all potential losses that can cause serious financial problems.

(1) Property Losses – The direct loss that requires replacement or repair and indirect loss that requires additional expenses as a result of the loss.

(For example, the damage of the car incurs repair cost and additional expenses to rent another car while the car is being repaired.)

(2) Liability Losses – It arises from the damage of other’ property or personal injury to others.

(For example, the damage to public property as a result of a car accident.)

(3) Personal Losses – The loss of earning power due to death, disability, sickness or unemployment and the extra expenses incurred as a result of injury or illness.

(For example, the loss of employment due to cancer and the required treatment cost in addition to normal living expenses.)

Risk Measurement

Subsequently, the maximum possible loss (i.e. the severity) associated with the event as well as the probability of occurrence (i.e. the frequency) is quantified.

(1) Property Risk – The replacement cost necessary to replace or repair the damaged asset is estimated by a comparable asset at the current price. Indirect expenses for alternative arrangements like accommodation, food, transport, etc, needs to be taken into account.

(2) Liability Risk – This is considered to be unlimited as it will depend upon the severity of the event and the amount the court awards to the aggrieved party.

(3) Personal Risk – Estimate the present value of the required living expenses and additional expenses per year and computing it over a predetermined number of years at some assumed interest rate and inflation.

Methods Of Treating Risk

A combination of all or several techniques are used together to treat the risk.

(1) Avoidance – The complete elimination of the activity.

This is the most powerful technique, but also the most difficult and may sometimes be impractical. In addition, care must be taken that avoidance of one risk does not create another.

(For example, to avoid the risk associated with flying, never take a flight on the plane.)

(2) Segregation – Separating the risk.

This is a simple technique that involves not putting all your eggs in one basket.

(For example, to avoid both parents dying in a car crash together, travel in separate vehicles.)

(3) Duplication – Have more than one.

This technique requires preparation of additional back up(s).

(For example, to avoid the loss of use of a car, have 2 or more cars.)

(4) Prevention – Forestall the risk from happening.

This technique aims to reduce the frequency of the loss occurring.

(For example, to prevent fires, keep matches away from children.)

(5) Reduction – Minimize the magnitude of loss.

This technique aims to reduce loss severity and can be used before, during or after the loss has occurred.

(For example, to reduce losses as a result of a fire, install smoke detectors, sprinklers and fire extinguishers.)

(6) Retention – Self assumption of risk.

This technique involves retaining the risk consciously or more dangerous as unconsciously to finance one’s own loss.

(For example, having 6 months of income in savings to protect against the risk of unemployment.)

(7) Transfer – Insurance.

This technique transfers the financial consequences to another party.

(This will be covered in more detail as a topic.)

Administration Of Method

The selected methods must be implemented.

And finally to close the loop for the process, new risks must be continually identified and all risks needs to be re-measured when required. Treatment alternatives should also be reviewed.

How to Handle a Warning For a Traffic Violation

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Florida drivers who receive a warning instead of a traffic ticket from a law enforcement officer after committing a violation are often relieved. Warnings are not recorded on an individual’s driving record, cannot be used to raise insurance rates, and don’t result in a fine. A warning for a traffic infraction is a reprieve, but it should also be viewed as a wake-up call.

After years of driving experience, many motorists develop poor driving habits such as driving while distracted, exceeding the speed limit, and rolling through stop signs at familiar intersections. These lapses are sometimes enough to result in traffic tickets – or cause crashes. A refresher defensive driving course on safe driving techniques and road rules can help drivers save money by avoiding future tickets and motor vehicle crashes.

A benefit of a traffic school course is that drivers learn defensive driving. It teaches drivers to go beyond the rules of the road to put safety first. Driving defensively means driving in such a way that you reduce the risk of crash, which in turn prevents injury to yourself and others. Using defensive driving techniques will help you:

  • Manage stressful driving conditions
  • Avoid traffic tickets or warnings
  • Keep your vehicle in good mechanical condition
  • Keep your driver’s license
  • Driver education courses are particularly important for teen drivers who receive warnings. Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for teens. As newly licensed drivers, teens often have little driver education beyond the minimum requirements for a Florida driver’s license, and they often have trouble applying what they learn in a classroom until they have some behind-the-wheel experience. A warning for a traffic violation is the best opportunity for reinforcing driver safety concepts.

    For Chiropractors – Whiplash and Personal Injury Analysis – Penning’s Method

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    This analysis method is by far one of the most useful for determination of loss of range of motion that I have found. This is a awesome way to show pre/post x-ray changes in a quantifiable way, and to show how the care you provided helped your patients by improving ligament stability in the cervical spine.

    To establish hypomobility or hypermobility of vertebral segments in the sagittal plane, Penning’s Method is a one of your greatest methods. This is done with functional examination of the cervical spine in flexion and extension, using radiographic analysis.

    If there is a loss of range of motion present, several factors may be found in your patient. You as the attending Cape Girardeau Chiropractor will need to understand these variable factors in order to ensure that the “validity of assessment” criteria have been met according to standards. Doing so will also best help your patient should a personal injury case enter the court room and you find yourself on the witness stand.

    The intention of this article is to briefly explain and help Cape Girardeau Chiropractors use this method of functional radiographic diagnosis of the cervical spine during flexion/extension. This will hopefully allow you to better serve your patients and to have solid pre/post analysis. There has been much research done on this topic by Dr Liberti, D.C., as well as many other Doctors and Physicians, such as Dr. Pennings himself.

    Completion of Penning’s Method

    Penning’s Method is known by many to be the most widely accepted and utilized method for determining flexion/extension motion. To start the extension film is superimposed on the flexion film, with the C7 vertebrae matching perfectly. Next a line is drawn along one of the edges of the extension film, onto the flexion film. You then do the same with C6. A second line is then drawn. You can now measure an angle between these two lines and this establishes the degree of motion between the C6 and C7 vertebra. You follow this sequence for the rest of the cervical spine to determine the degree of motion between all of the vertebrae. The average values of segmental motion are written about by Dr. Penning: Functional Pathology of the Cervical Spine, 1968 pg 1-25. These values can be compared to determine the amount of dysfunction present in your patient’s cervical spine. It should be fairly easy for you to find some examples of these drawings elsewhere on the internet.

    To reiterate this is a very valuable method for determining abnormal or pathological conditions such as hyper or hypomobility of the cervical spine.

    Penning Method of Radiographic Determination of Loss of Range of Motion:

    As an example if the normal for C2-C3 was 12.5 degrees and your patient was 20 degress, your percentage of normal would be 160%. If normal at C3-C4 was 18 degrees and your patient was 15 degrees your percentage of normal would be 83%. This is straight forward, if you would like all the normal values, these can easily be found on the internet.

    The percentage of normal is figured out by dividing the patient’s values by Penning’s established normal values. For example C3-C4 15/18 = 83%. This essentially represents 83% of normal motion at the C3-C4 joint had been maintained. On the other hand you see that 17% of normal motion was lost when compared to the normal value as determined by Penning.

    If you look at the C2-C3 level you see that you have 160% of normal motion, or 60% more than normal expected motion at this level. This is clear as to how to read this!

    *Values above 100 are HYPERMOBILE

    *Values below 100 are HYPOMOBILE

    NORMAL at 100% (Values within 10% of 100 are considered to lie within the standard deviation of what is accepted as normal.) So anywhere between 90-110% for all intensive purposed is considered normal.

    Further Analysis of example patient:

    The interpretation of the above example is as follows; multiple areas of abnormal joint motion and dysfunction are present. Cervical Joint Hypomobility or a loss of normal joint range of motion was found at C3/C4, and C5/C6 motor units. Cervical Joint Hypermobility was present at the C2/C3 motor units.

    You can also see a compensatory minimal Hypermobility present at C6/C7, but this falls within the normal standard of deviation.

    Restated there are two areas of diminished joint range of motion and one with excessive motion involving the cervical spine segments during flexion/extension in the sagittal plane.

    As is obvious, these abnormalities exist within the joints of the cervical spinal column and this analysis has been established radiographically.

    As goes without saying, in addition to substantiating loss of joint range of motion, a Cape Girardeau Chiropractor should be looking to further evaluate possible existence of any neurological deficit (either sensory or motor). By simply looking at the mechanical and structural aspects of a particular case however, much can be objectively gained, and you will be able to stand with confidence in saying that structural integrity has improved on this patient if post care analysis shows improvement on Penning’s Method. Any degree of improvement substantiates improvement to the patient’s ligamentous integrity and of course increased normal range of motion. These two things alone could prove invaluable, should you find yourself testifying in court. I will soon be writing a Part II of this article titled “Objective Scales of Prognosis for Chiropractors doing Whiplash and Personal Injury Cases.” If you have found this helpful I am sure this will go a long way to giving you the objective findings you need in validating patient care. If you need any further help finding more information on this, any Cape Girardeau Chiropractic Clinic can feel free to look at the resource box in order to contact me with further questions.

    Ohio SR22 Bond FAQ’s: Things You MUST Be Aware of Before Buying

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    Q: What is an SR22 bond and how is it different from regular car insurance

    A: If you are considering taking out an Ohio Sr22 Bond, you first need to understand the difference between an SR22 Bond and a regular auto insurance policy. An SR22 Bond is a guarantee that a driver has the state minimum liability coverage. The bond only pays out if the named driver is at fault in an accident and either causes bodily injury or property damage to the other driver or their vehicle. The bond does NOT cover the insured or their vehicle at all. If you want coverage on your own vehicle, or medical coverage on yourself and your passengers, this bond will not work for you. Instead, you should take out a regular auto insurance policy (and if the Ohio BMV requires you to file this bond, it can easily be attached to a regular car insurance policy).

    Q: What are the state minimum limits in Ohio?

    A: If you’re at fault in an accident and you injure someone, the SR22 bond will pay up to $12,500 per person for injuries, up to $25,000 total. Also, if the accident causes damage to the other vehicle, it will pay up to $7500 for property damage. Therefore, the most this bond will ever pay from a single accident is $32,500. If the damages you caused exceed the policy limits, you may be held responsible for the remainder of the damage.

    Q: Does it make sense for someone who does not require a state filing to buy an SR22 bond in lieu of traditional auto insurance?

    A: Yes, but only if all 3 of the following apply:

    1. You want no more coverage on any vehicle you drive other than the state minimum liability.

    2. You assume all risk as far as injury to yourself and passengers and you also assume all risk if there is damage to your car.

    3. Traditional insurance will cover your vehicle driven by another driver should you loan your vehicle to them. An SR22 Bond does NOT cover anyone for liability but YOU. As long as you understand these 3 things and the risks associated, then an SR22 bond might be the right option.

    Q: What are the advantages of buying a bond instead of regular car insurance?

    A: If a driver is only interested in buying the absolute state minimum coverage on theirself and want no coverage on their vehicle or anyone else, then an SR22 bond is significantly cheaper than traditional insurance.

    Q: What happens if I am late on a payment?

    A: With most companies, you will most likely have to pay a late fee, but as long as you are not more than 10 days late, you will be fine. If you go beyond 10 days late (or 2 weeks with some companies), your policy will lapse. WARNING! Although all of my companies do allow this grace period, some companies do NOT! Some companies will cancel the bond if payment is one day late. Be sure to check with your agent about your bond.

    Q: What happens if I let the bond lapse?

    A: If you required a state filing by the Ohio BMV, then the company is obligated to notify the Ohio BMV that your policy has cancelled. This will result in your license being suspended again, and you may have to start the license reinstatement process again. In addition, you will probably have to pay a late fee and reinstatement fee on top of your payment in order to reinstate the bond.

    Q: How long will the Ohio BMV require me to carry a state filing?

    A: That depends on the severity of the law you violated that triggered a filing requirement in the fist place. But generally, requirements are usually in the range of 3-5 years.

    Q: Will this bond expire when I am no longer required to carry a state filing?

    A: No! In fact, the state filings will not cease until you notify the agent or company that the state filing is no longer required. This is important because there are additional fees associated with a state filing requirement. I have seen people who have needlessly paid additional state filing fees for long periods of time simply because they never requested the filings to stop. The BMV will tell you how long you need to continue filing. Be sure to keep the expiration date in mind.

    Q: How long does it take for me to be covered on an SR22 bond?

    A: In many cases it only takes minutes to be covered.

    Q: How long does it take for the BMV to process my bond?

    A: Generally, one business day. Of course, we can print your paperwork right away and email/fax it to you. To save time, you may take the paperwork to the BMV personally if you wish to speed things up.

    Q: Once I pay for my SR22 bond, is my license automatically reinstated?

    A: Usually No! In many cases, the Ohio BMV requires you to also pay a license reinstatement fee. In either case, I would highly recommend contacting the BMV before resuming driving. Only the BMV can officially tell you that your license is once again valid. It’s better to be safe than sorry!

    Comments: Prison Wives: The Forgotten Women In Our Society

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    6 Things You Must Consider Before a Canadian Motorcycle Ride

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    If you plan to cruise the highways and drive a motorcycle in Canada the following information will be useful to consider both for your own safety, and for your own piece of mind.

    Canadian Highways and Rural Roadways

    Whether you decide to rent a motorcycle or drive your own, Canada has a massive system of well managed city streets and highways which will bring you just about anywhere you want to go.

    The main highway throughout Canada is the Trans-Canada Highway, which goes coast to coast. The distance from the east coast to the west coast is about 8000 km or around 4,900 miles. You could go on a Canadian motorcycle ride for weeks and never get to see everything.

    Motorcycle Rentals

    Renting a motorcycle in Canada may be something you want to consider. Canada has several motorcycle rental companies found near the major cities and towns. Rates vary depending on the season, type of motorcycle and length of rental. The minimum age to rent a vehicle in Canada is usually anywhere from 21-25 years old. If you plan to travel through the western provinces on your motorcycle you might want to look into the many popular tourist attractions, and the awesome roads to travel.

    In order to rent in most cases you will need to have a major credit card. Requirements may vary from each province. Be sure to reserve your motorcycle ahead of time during peak travel times, which are usually from mid May to November.

    Camping With Your Motorcycle

    Most Canadian provincial and national parks, private campgrounds and other conservation areas allow you to camp with your motorcycle.

    All of the Canadian provinces have a government agency that is responsible for tourism. You should check their websites or call for information to get get maps, and possible promotional offers, and maybe even some more Canadian motorcycle information. If you plan to stay in a campground near a popular park like Banff, Whistler, and Fundy National Park you should book in advance.

    Driving Laws- Canadian Motorcycle Driving

    In Canada the road laws are very similar to the rules in most US states. Most road safety laws and regulations are determined at the provincial and territorial level, so make sure you know the particular rules for the province you plan to be visiting. One rule for motorcyclists throughout all Canadian Provinces is that you must wear a motorcycle helmet if you are driving a motorcycle in Canada.

    Other things to consider while driving throughout all the Canadian provinces on a motorcycle are that you are allowed to make a right turn on red lights in most cities throughout the country after coming to a complete stop. Be careful though because in some areas of Quebec you are not allowed to do this. For more information, check with the Government of Quebec’s website.

    In all Canadian provinces pedestrians have the right-of-way and you must yield to pedestrians at crosswalks. The speed limit on the most rural highways is usually around 90-100 km/hr or about 55-65 mph. Speed limits are enforced mainly by the RCMP in rural areas, and municipal police in most major cities throughout Canada.

    If you are pulled over by a police officer you must provide proof of insurance, driver’s license and registration.

    Weather

    Many people who are not from Canada picture the country as having vast piles of snow and snowmobiles as the main mode of transportation. Nothing could be more false. In most provinces you can ride a motorcycle 8-9 months out of the year. In Vancouver British Columbia and other western cities and towns, people drive year round. The summer months can get very humid in Canada, and there are many Canadian motorcycle events held across the country on an annual basis.

    Motorcycle Insurance Canada, Driver’s License and Permit

    If you plan a ride a motorcycle through Canada and you are from the United States., your driver’s license is valid in Canada. Be sure to bring proof of motorcycle insurance by talking to your insurance company for a free Non-resident Inter Provincial Motor Vehicle Liability Insurance Card before you leave, or carry your policy itself.

    If you’re driving a borrowed motorcycle, you should bring a letter signed by the owner that says you are allowed. Also for a rented motorcycle, carry a copy of the rental contract.

    7 Reasons Firefighters Need to Find a Second Job

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    Heads up Firefighters! The politicians are coming to balance their budget from your household and family. It is no secret that firefighters are having to get more involved in the political world to fight for rights and benefits that others from previous generations have fought for and won. Now, when times are tough, politicians are going after retirements, wages and benefits. Stations are being closed and the workload is increasing. Basically firefighters are going to be working harder for less.

    That is not to say firefighters still do not have nice benefits. So why would I say that firefighters need to look for a second job? Continue reading to find out the top 7 reasons firefighters should consider a second job.

    7) Training, training and more training. Being a firefighter literally is an all risk job. About the only thing they do not do is shoot at people. Even then, firefighters can get caught in the way of those situations. By finding a second job, you can become an expert in something other than firefighting. Many firefighters are contractors or mountain climbers or whatever. Those people are able to put on little training sessions in their area of expertise that interests them that can help other firefighters if they ever have to deal with an issue with those topics. Or they can apply their area of expertise to help out the department or the personnel.

    6) Having something to look forward to with retirement around the corner is crucial. Just like new firefighters have to worry about getting laid off, older firefighters need to find an outlet other than work that will allow them to have something to look forward to. Also, many retirees do not retire with their full paycheck, so they too are looking at living with less income…a fixed income. Maybe they do not need a second job, but it is an option, as opposed to running calls into their 60’s.

    5) Say bye bye to overtime. Many departments might already be at this point now due to many cut backs, however there are other departments that have had a hiring freeze which means mandatories are up and overtime is plentiful. The problem is if departments start closing stations (which they are doing) or browning out rigs (which they are doing), then overtime goes away. And many firefighters have become used to that little extra income, and it will start going away.

    4) Some firefighters may need to have some additional skills in case the “L” word gets used. For the most part, politicians are not dumb enough to lay off firefighters, but that has not stopped them from laying of police and sheriff officers, and if things do not improve, they will start closing more stations and will start laying off firefighters. The new hires will be the ones that are expendable.

    3) Firefighters are probably going to have to take a pay cut, give up some benefits, pay more into retirement or medical benefits…or something along these lines. In some cases a couple of these scenarios might be looked at. Firefighters enjoyed several years of good contracts, many with plenty of overtime and hiring. Today, management and politicians are trying to save themselves and are looking down for solutions. In the end, a firefighters take home check is going to be less then in the past, at precisely the wrong time in this economic world.

    2) By studying and learning another topic other than firefighting, you can find an outlet that will help you mentally deal with the job of a firefighter. Obviously for the first several years, firefighters should learn as much as they can, and they should continue that throughout their career. However, opening a book on woodworking, or computer programming or how to get into selling quilts online, can help take their minds off of some of the things they have to deal with. Everyone needs an outlet, and a firefighters work schedule can allow them to learn another skill and have a second job that is interesting, lucrative and most of all, a solid stress reliever.

    1) Firefighters need to have a backup plan for injuries. It does not matter if you are on your first call or your last, the potential for a life changing and debilitating injury is always present. It does not take much to blow out a disc, twist a knee or tear a shoulder…among other injuries. Along with that, there are the communicable diseases that can lay someone up forever. There is workers comp and other insurances, but with the way things are these days, covered with lawyers, it is best to have things lined up for yourself. Our health is the most important thing we own, and it is put on the line every day. It is time firefighters also make sure they are set up financially, just in case.

    Secondary Market Annuities – 3 Things to Know

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    Secondary Market Annuities can offer a higher rate of return than a traditional fixed annuity, certificate of deposit, and an indexed annuity. Secondary Market Annuities are offered and paid to the investor directory from insurance companies regardless if you are the original owner or not. This article will answer the 3 most popular questions about these annuities.

    What is a Secondary Market Annuity?

    You might have seen the many commercials on TV that offer to buy an annuity or structured settlement for a lump sum payout. Some people are awarded a payment for a certain amount of years or for life because of a personal injury settlement. Often times people cannot afford to wait that long to receive the funds and opt. to sell their payments for a lump sum payment in cash.

    When a client resells their annuity or structured settlement, this creates a secondary market for those annuities. An everyday example is lottery winners. They can take a payment for 30 years or take lump sum cash payment now for a lot less than the total amount of winnings.

    Who Makes the Payments?

    As mentioned above, when someone sells their annuity or structured settlement for lump sum cash payment, this creates a secondary market for those annuities. Annuities are sold by life insurance companies. Life insurance companies are the safest and some of the oldest institutions in the world. These companies included Prudential, MetLife, John Hancock, and many others.

    These companies do not care who they make the payments to. They are obligated sometimes by law to make the payments to the original owner or the new owners. What this means to you is that those payments are steady and guaranteed which helps a lot of people sleep good at night knowing their money is backed by in insurance carrier.

    How Can I Make Money?

    The Secondary Market for annuities can and will provide potential investors with a higher yield than traditional annuities and certificate of deposits. Since the annuity is sold for pennies on the dollar, there is a huge spread which means a higher yield to the new investor.

    Some of the options for these annuities included waiting to take the income at some point in the future. Often times the contract will begin payments in 1-20 years down the road. The nice thing about these contracts is that you can choose the yield, duration, insurance company, and when the payments begin. These contracts change on a daily basis because there are more investors than available contracts. If you find something you like, you will have to make a decision quicker than purchasing a traditional annuity.